Investigating Cancer DNA Could Help Treat Liver Disease

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    Fragments of cancer DNA circulating in a patient’s bloodstream could help doctors deliver more personalized treatment for liver cancer, Japanese researchers report.

    The new research may help address a particular challenge posed by liver cancers, which can be difficult to analyze safely. One serious risk of existing biopsy methods is that doctors who want to obtain a tumor sample for analysis might cause the cancer to spread into the space around organs.

    “Doctors need non-invasive methods that will allow them to safely study cancer progression and characterize the genomic features of a patient’s tumor,” said Professor Kazuaki Chayama, a principal investigator in this study. “Testing for these circulating DNA fragments may be a much easier and safer way of doing this than conventional liver biopsy.”

    The researchers showed that detecting DNA released by damaged cancer cells, called circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), in serum before surgery could predict the recurrence of cancer and its spread through the body (metastasis) in patients with an advanced form of the most common type of liver cancer. The new study brings this technique closer to clinical reality in patients with advanced HCC by showing that ctDNA provided valuable clinical information about the patient’s disease progression.

    Professor Chayama and colleagues in Hiroshima University including Dr. Atsushi Ono, together with researchers at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo, investigated whether they could detect ctDNA in serum of 46 HCC patients. “Furthermore, we found that the level of ctDNA correlated with progression of HCC and the treatment,” said Professor Chayama.

    The Japanese team also says that ctDNA has the potential to be a non-invasive way of studying the genetic rearrangements that a cancer has undergone. Furthermore, 83% of mutations identified in the tumor tissues could be detected in the cell-free DNA.

    Although further study is necessary to develop more effective methods, the new study adds to growing evidence about the usefulness of ctDNA in cancer treatment, and shows that it is a promising biomarker that provides a new way to treat liver cancer.

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